ROCHEMP Center is the result of a project developed by the University of Bologna and the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sport of the Republic of Armenia, with the support of AICS – Italian Agency for Development Cooperation. The Center is a “competence Center” working in five key programmatic areas: Management, Training, Regulations, Communication, Regional Hub.

The conference was aimed at presenting to a wider public the main goals, results and future perspectives of the activities of the ROCHEMP Regional Office for Cultural Heritage Enhancement, Management and Protection (ROCHEMP). Armenian and Italian field specialists, experts, who have contributed to the establishment of the project, have participated in the online conference, reporting on the work implemented for six programmatic actions (Action A, B, C, D, E, F).

The conference was held under the presidency of the professor of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, Marco Abbiati. The Deputy Technical Director of AICS- Italian Agency for Development Cooperation, Leonardo Carmenati, Deputy Minister of Education, Science, Culture and Sports of the Republic of Armenia, Ara Khzmalyan, Deputy Rector for International Relationship of University of Bologna, Alessandra Scagliarini, Head of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, Luigi Canetti gave welcoming speeches.

The main program of the conference was opened by the representative of AICS-Italian Agency for Development Cooperation, Emilio Cabasino, who talked about the support that the Agency has provided to the ROCHEMP Project, highlighting the importance of their commitment in the continuation of the project.

The professor of the Department of History and Cultures of University of Bologna, ROCHEMP Project’s Armenian Cultural Expert with function of facilitator, Anna Sirinian presented to the conference participants centuries-old Armenian-Italian cooperation and cultural interactions, stressing the important role that University of Bologna has played in this respect.

The professor of the Department of Culture Heritage of University of Bologna, Luigi Tomassini in his speech talked about the relevance and originality of the Project, as well as presented the history of the development of “ROCHEMP-ARMENIA” Project.

The professor of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, the Scientific Director of ROCHEMP Project, Mariangela Vandini and the Director of ROCHEMP Centre, Ani Avagyan presented the structure, the main areas of activities, mission and goals, as well as implemented work of the Project.  At the end օf her presentation Ani Avagyan introduced the Proceedings of the ROCHEMP 2020 International Conference which has been published recently by the National Gallery of Armenia. The regional and international dimension of implemented initiatives and crucial projects carried out in collaboration with local institutions (MoESCS of RA, MFA of RA, NUACA) and with the representatives of international organisations (ICOM Armenia, ICOMOS Armenia, “My Armenia” Program of the Smithsonian Institutions), in particular the “COVID-19 Consequences Relief Program” were mentioned. The Director of the Centre encouraged everyone to read the detailed report on our website.

The research fellow of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, ROCHEMP Project Manager, Tania Chinni, the Secretary-Translator of ROCHEMP Centre, Gohar Hovakimyan and the research fellow of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, the Advisor in diagnostic and restoration of the ROCHEMP Project, Sara Fiorentino in their speech introduced the work carried out by ROCHEMP Centre for the implementation of Action B and Action D. In February-June, 2020 15 Armenian and international experts were trained by the professors of University of Bologna and Italian heritage professionals within the ROCHEMP Project’s Action B. For Action D, the research on the educational institutions preparing cultural heritage professionals in Armenia was conducted, as well as the assessment of needs and the comparative analysis of Armenian and Italian cases, based on which it was suggested to develop and integrate curriculum for architectural restorers and other profession related to the cultural heritage preservation which will correspond to the internationally accepted standards of education.    

Another topic concerned Action C, the presenter Nanar Kalantaryan, who is the architect of ROCHEMP Centre, introduced the research conducted on the laws and regulations of cultural heritage sector of the Republic Armenia, which was realized within this component of the Project, as a result the main issues, omissions were determined, and a proposal for corresponding improvements was developed. The architect, the research fellow of Centre for Study and Documentation of Armenian Culture and the international expert of the ROCHEMP Project, Gaiane Casnati talked about the research methodology and the structure of a prepared report.  The professor of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna and the Scientific Manager for the architectural restoration Marco Pretelli presented the peculiarities of developing a quality design project for architectural heritage preservation and the research fellow and the Advisor for the architectural restoration, Alessia Zampini familiarized the participants with the handbook of bill quantities and a pricelist prepared for the design projects for monuments’ conservation and restoration in Armenia.  

The next part of the conference was dedicated to the issues of Armenian heritage enhancement, particularly of the communication plan and tools of the ROCHEMP Project. The professor of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, the Director of FrameLAb, and the Scientific Manager of the Cultural Heritage Enhancement of the ROCHEMP Project, Alessandro Iannucci talked about the symbolical mission of the ROCHEMP Centre as a communication link situated between European and Asian civilizations. The research fellow and adjunct of the Department of Cultural Heritage of University of Bologna, the expert advisor in communication and enhancement of cultural heritage of the ROCHEMP Project, Simone Zambruno presented the strategies and implemented work of the FrameLAb developed for the ROCHEMP Project’s digital communication. The coordinator of the ROCHEMP Center, Gayane Babayan introduced the visibility and activities for the promotion of the Center on different social media and the media campaigns developed for different projects.

The main part of the conference was concluded by the Director of the National Gallery of Armenia, Marina Hakobyan who highlighted the mission of the Centre and informed that after the completion of the main phase of the ROCHEMP Project the Centre will be supported by the Armenian side.

During the closing statement of the Chargé d’Affaires of the Italian Embassy of Armenia, Giovanni Nicolo Dionisi emphasized the important role that the ROCHEMP Project had in the Armenian-Italian cultural diplomatic relations and invited the respective sides to the special consultation meeting on fostering the activities of the Centre.  

Despite the obstacles caused by COVID-19 pandemic and the war situation in Armenia, during its almost one-year operation, ROCHEMP Center managed to establish itself as a solid operational body and implement the set goals. The Center will present its new initiatives related to the issues of management, enhancement and protection of cultural heritage in the nearest future.

Declaration of the Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of the Second Protocol to The Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict – ensuring cultural property protection in and around Nagorno-Karabakh and setting-up an independent technical mission

11 December 2020

I. Background
The 9 November tripartite statement/agreement by the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Armenia and the President of the Russian Federation, enacted a complete ceasefire and cessation of all hostilities in and around the Nagorno-Karabakh.
However, while damage to cultural property in and around the Nagorno-Karabakh has been reported during the conflict, it is highly difficult, under current circumstances, to assess the whole situation regarding the state of protection of cultural property in all its forms.
On 20 November 2020, invoking its mandate under the 1954 Hague Convention, and in particular its Article 23, the UNESCO Director-General has expressed readiness to set up an independent technical mission in order to assess the status of the most significant cultural property.

II. Declaration
The Committee:

  1. Noting the damages to cultural property in all its forms that have been reported during the conflict,
  2. Reaffirming the universal dimension of cultural heritage, as a testimony of history inseparable from peoples’ identity, which the international community has the duty to protect and preserve for future generations, beyond the conflicts of the moment,
  3. Recalling the provisions of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols (1954 and 1999), to both of which Armenia and Azerbaijan are Parties, and which are based on the conviction of the States Parties “that damage to cultural property belonging to any people whatsoever means damage to the cultural heritage of all mankind, since each people makes its contribution to the culture of the world”,
  4. Recalling also Security Council resolution 2347 (2017), which emphasizes that “the illegal destruction of cultural heritage, looting and smuggling of cultural property in the event of armed conflicts, including by terrorist groups, and attempts to deny historical roots and cultural diversity in this context, can fuel and exacerbate conflicts and impede post-conflict national reconciliation, thus undermining the security, stability, governance and social, economic and cultural development of affected States”,
  5. Calls for the protection of cultural heritage in and around the Nagorno-Karabakh and for the prevention of future damage;
  6. Appeals to all Parties involved to undertake all the immediate and necessary measures to prevent looting and protect cultural property in all its forms located in and around Nagorno-Karabakh;
  7. Welcomes the UNESCO’s initiative, taken in conformity with Article 23 of the 1954 Hague Convention, to carry out as soon as possible an independent technical mission, with the agreement of all concerned Parties, with the aim of assessing the status of the cultural property in all its forms as a prerequisite for the effective protection of heritage;
  8. Considers that such an assessment of status of the cultural property will contribute to establish a basis for progressive and comprehensive future rehabilitation and development actions to promote the return to civilian life in and around Nagorno-Karabakh in the field of cultural heritage;
  9. Encourages UNESCO to continue its work with States Parties and other interested partners creating conditions for such an independent technical mission.

The Deputies of the Minister of ESCS of RA have received the Undersecretary for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy

The Deputies of the Minister of ESCS of the Republic of Armenia, Arthur Martirosyan and Narine Khachatouryan received the delegation led by Undersecretary for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy, Manilo Di Stefano. From the Armenian side was also present the Director of the Regional Office for Cultural Heritage Enhancement, Management and Protection (ROCHEMP Centre), Ani Avagyan.

The meeting was focused on the continuation of the cooperation established between the governments of Armenia and Italy in frames of ROCHEMP Project, on the issues of the safety, preservation and protection of cultural heritage in the territory of the conflict zone in Artsakh, as well as on the questions related to fostering cooperation in the field of cultural heritage between Armenia and Italy.

The Undersecretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Manilo Di Stefano noted that the government of Italy is committed to continue its support for ROCHEMP Project and through this Project contribute to the preservation of historical and cultural monuments. “Issues related to the cultural heritage are non-political, and Italy on this matter has no second agenda”, – added he.

The Deputy Minister of ESCS of RA, Arthur Martirosyan presented the issues concerning the preservation of historical and cultural monuments situated out of the territory of RA, as well as the inadmissibility of misrepresentation of Armenian cultural heritage stressing the potential assistance and role of Italy in this important process.

The Deputy Minister Narine Khachaturyan also represented the results of the activities of the Regional Office for Cultural Heritage Enhancement, Management and Protection. “The further activities of the Centre will make new opportunities for the preservation of historical and cultural monuments of Armenia, Artsakh and of the region”.

The Director of Regional Office for Cultural Heritage Enhancement, Management and Protection, Ani Avagyan, reflecting on the one-year activities of the Centre, expressed her gratitude to the Ministry of ESCS of RA, AICS – the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation and the University of Bologna for their support and cooperation in this important project.

“Despite the challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and war the Centre has fully implemented its mandated tasks, creating a solid ground for its continuation”, – pointed out the Centre Director.  



UNESCO International Conference “Cultural Policy, Policy for Culture: The Role of Culture in Post-2015 Development Agenda”, held in Armenia in 2015, adopted a Declaration, which in the strongest terms condemned cultural cleansing, barbaric destruction, violence, looting and other crimes committed against humanity’s cultural heritage and called upon the international․

Gohar Agha Upper Mosque, 1864–1865
In 2019 the mosque was restored keeping in mind the best international practices and standards, the project involved both local and international organizations. Along with an existing partnership with the Artsakh Ministry of Culture, the project also partnered with the Iranian “Part Saman Jahan” architectural bureau; the “TFA-Armenia” architectural bureau; ICOMOS-Armenia; Lorenzo Jurina, professor of the Politecnico di Milano; Faculty of Oriental Studies, Yerevan State University, as well as Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization. The latter provided significant support in inviting 12 specialists with major experience in brickwork construction, as well as the restoration of Islamic spiritual sites, to participate in the mosque renovation efforts.

Contribution of the Republic of Armenia to the consultations on the intentional destruction of cultural heritage as a violation of human rights, in particular cultural rights

The UN Human Rights Office of the Hight Commissionaire published a document, which states that the cultural heritage of national minorities in the Republic of Armenia is protected and preserved in accordance with appropriate legislation in force. According to the Constitution the citizens of Armenia who belong to national minorities have the right to preserve and develop their own customs, language, culture and religious liberties. These rights are reflected in a number of laws, which are being strengthened. The restoration of cultural heritage is implemented by means of financial resources allocated from the State Budget and from public-private partnerships. These resources are equally used to provide the restoration of both Armenian cultural heritage properties and ones belonging to national minorities.

The monuments of Armenian historical and cultural heritage have been a subject of intentional destruction throughout centuries during armed conflicts, as well as in time of peace. Along with human lives lost, cultural heritage is under ongoing attacks and under danger of destruction on both sides. Gross violation is done against the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.

As opposed to the policy of Azerbaijan, the Muslim monuments in Armenia and Nagorno Karabakh are under Government protection, well preserved and restored and are never used for any other purposes. The authorities in Nagorno-Karabakh have restored a 19th century mosque, the first Muslim monument to open as a tourist attraction in the entirely Christian-populated territory.

The monuments of Armenian heritage throughout the whole territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan have been either alienated (when falsely presented as “related to Caucasian Albania/Arran/Aghvank”) or destroyed.

This December will mark the 15th anniversary of the most recent and notorious of the acts of cultural vandalism committed in Nakhijevan. Several thousands of giant engraved cross-stones and tombstones of the medieval Armenian cemetery of Old Jugha in Nakhijevan were bulldozed by the Azerbaijani army during peacetime. There is ample evidence, including photos and videos, showing the destruction of the Armenian cultural heritage. In total 89 medieval churches, 5.840 ornate cross-stones and 22,000 historical tombstones were demolished only in Nakhijevan between 1997 and 2006. 

Cross stones, Nakhichevan 12-13cc.

The 16th General Assembly of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) adopted in October 2008 a resolution expressing the international community’s concern with regard to these acts of vandalism and regretfully stating: “this heritage that once enjoyed its worthy place among the treasures of the world’s heritage can no longer be transmitted today to future generations.”

Deliberate destruction of cultural heritage sites amounts to war crimes. The history shows that any form of intolerance towards the values of civilization belonging to others, intentionally damaging or destroying cultural or religious heritage, must be condemned with strong determination in order to protect the heritage. By keeping silence, we are paving the way to the new cultural atrocities to be committed in the different parts of the world. 

Museums and collections located in the zone of current fire are under huge risk of destruction. Museum professionals are committed to promote and to call the international and national societies to protect and preserve cultural heritage that is a mean to achieve a global well-being. The international Council of Museums – ICOM promotes the idea of museums and culture being for peace, mutual understanding and protecting human memory.



This book is addressed to those readers and visitors who want to know better the ancient heritage of Armenia and aims to highlight the archaeological, architectural, art historical, cultural and historical significant value of the Ererouyk complex and its peculiarities, as well as to the greatest extent elucidate the reason for the establishment of this complex in a place which today is in a miserable and isolated state. The current publication also attempts to make comprehensible the factors by which is conditioned the development and preservation of the complex, comprised of totally different structures dating from the ancient times to the end of the Middle Ages. For that reason, two sources of information were used in this book: the first is the accumulated knowledge about this site during the twentieth century and at the turn of twenty-first century, the second are the results of the research conducted by the Armenian-French expedition of the Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia and Shirak Geological Museum in collaboration with the Aix-Marseille University (France). Finally, this book succinctly presents a new program of the enhancement which is a proposal for fostering the touristic potential not only of the Ererouyk site but also for learning about, adjacent to the complex, the modern architectural heritage of the village of Anipemza.



From 2010 the complex which includes the remains of Ererouyk and the village of Anipemza was the objective of several significant projects of the preservation and enhancement, oriented not only toward the issues of national heritage, but also toward the development of tourism and economy, pursuing a specific mission – improving living conditions of the local population.

The first phase was initiated by the Ministry of Culture of Armenia in 2012 with the support of foreign partners the Laboratory of Medieval and Modern Archaeology in the Mediterranean (Aix-en-Provence) and Center of Studies and Documentation of Armenian Culture (Milan-Venice). Due to the efforts of the Ministry, the Armenian government approved the program of the site’s managing and improvement of the road accessibility. The Ministry has also started an action for including Ererouyk in the World Heritage List of UNESCO.

The second phase was in 2015, again with the support of the Laboratory of Medieval and Modern Archaeology in the Mediterranean and the Polytechnic University of Milan, was initiated the research, preservation and tourism importance project by Gaiane Casnati, the architect of the Centre of Studies and Documentation of Armenian Culture. In 2016 Europa Nostra Association and European Investment Bank Institution classified Ererouyk-Anipemza complex in the list of “Seven most endangered sites”. This classification became a starting point for launching a funding campaign for a program that included the creation of a group of the international experts (including the author of these lines) and initiation of a funding campaign for making the project into reality. Two university and scholarly institutions – the Polytechnic University of Milan and the Laboratory of Medieval and Modern Archaeology in the Mediterranean have joined the project.

The goals of the project are: a) to deepen the study of archaeological remains; b) to ensure the protection of destroyed monuments with conservation of their some extremely endangered parts; c) to create conditions for good preservation and presentation of rich collection of stones  nowadays dispersed on the site; d) to promote the site’s managing by supporting Armenian government in the processing of the enhancement program; e) to establish a regional center for tourism with the active involvement of a local population in the village of Anipemza. Such a project definitely seems ambitious and its implementation can occur only in phases. However, if it receives a stable support of Armenian authorities and this way arouses interest of local, national and international players, its implementation in average time frame seems quite possible.

With respect to this last point, it is proposed to restore some of 1920s-30s significant buildings of Anipemza and to place several exhibition spaces there. In one of them can be displayed the collection of sculptured stones – this would allow to represent the history of the architectural complex and at the same time of the early Christian architecture, of its decoration and cross-bearing stele. Another exhibition hall through the documentation and photographs would present the public the life of the village in the Soviet period. The creation of this kind of center would become an important factor for the stimulation of the economy of Anipemza and its surrounding.

For a long-term perspective, in case of favorable political conditions, it is planned to give this center a cross-border significance, making Anipemza an important place for international tourism which would open a door for the exploration of the ancient, medieval and new periods rich heritage of Shirak on two sides of the Armenian-Turkish border. Along with Ani, it can become a cross-border archaeological park, the creation of which would correspond to the endeavors of the scholars, and among them first of all of Adriano Alpago Novello, who have already dreamed about it for a half century.

The inclusion of these two sites in the UNESCO World Heritage List: the city of Ani (obtained on 15th of July, 2016 by the efforts of Turkish authorities) and Ererouyk (listed in the “Tentative list”) should facilitate the implementation of such a project. The current publication is intended to contribute to the fulfillment of these aims.       

ROCHEMP Center’s Director Ani Avagyan was invited to talk with Maria Titizian on EVN Report’s podcast about the field of preservation of Armenian cultural and historical heritage

During the talk Ani Avagyan presented the vision, mission and current activities of the ROCHEMP’s Center, as well as discussed relevant issues, challenges in this field and possible solutions for the development and regulation of the field of cultural heritage protection and restoration.

For the podcast follow the link below:

36 Regional Museums and Museum-Reserves were Provided with the Material and Technical Support

The Ministry of Education, Science, Culture and Sports of the Republic of Armenia, in collaboration with ICOM Armenia and ROCHEMP Center, has conducted the assessment of needs of museums and museum-reserves based on it, in frames of USAID “My Armenia” initiative, was developed the COVID-19’s impacts relief program. In the first phase of the initiative “My Armenia” program provided 36 museums and reserve-museums of Shirak, Lori, Tavush, Vayots Dzor and Syunik regions of the Republic of Armenia with the technical equipment, hygiene and safety kits, printed posters with guidelines introducing the visiting rules during the pandemic.

The first event of the program’s donation took place at the Khachatur Abovyan’s house-museum to which participated the Deputy of the Minister of Education, Science, Culture and Sports of the Republic of Armenia,  Narine Khachaturyan. She congratulated the representatives of museums and museum-reserves on the occasion of museums reopening after a long interruption and talked about the importance of joint programs: “I am grateful to the organizers that made every effort to implement this program. This approach and collaboration are extremely important. The provided material and technical support which is also important from the healthcare’s point of view, will contribute to the effective organisation of work at the reopened museums, – said N.Khachaturyan, expressing hope that museums will not have lack of visitors.  

The program manager of USAID “My Armenia” program, Sisak Mkhitaryan stressed that with this initiative they aim to help museums to deal with the problems and challenges posed by COVID-19: “With this support museums will be able to create conditions for their employees and visitors, work more productively, continuing their extremely important and valuable activities’’, – he said, thanking all participants of the project.

The choice of regions which have received support in the first phase of the program is conditioned by the geography of “My Armenia” program, the initiative will be of a continuing nature.


A Study of the Toponyms of the Kingdom of Bia/Urarṭu


(Scienze e Lettere 2020)

by Roberto Dan

This volume by Roberto Dan is the second he has written in the Serie Orientale Roma N.S. The first study (From the Armenian Highland to Iran A Study on the Relations between the Kingdom of Urartu and the Achaemenid Empire, S.O.R. 4, 2015) focused on a systematic analysis of complex matters such as the “direct” and “indirect” relations between the state of Urartu and the Achaemenid Empire, with a special focus on the so-called “Median transition,” a work that was aimed at historians, archaeologists and art historians. This second volume is devoted to a study of Urartian toponomastics based on the publication of the Corpus dei Testi Urartei by Mirjo Salvini (five volumes, 2008-2018). It is jointly published by ISMEO and the Dipartimento di scienze umanistiche, della comunicazione e del turismo of the Tuscia University, Viterbo. Part of the research has been conducted within the framework of a Research Fellows Program (“Urartu and the Achaemenids: archaeological and textual comparisons”) at DISUCOM, Tuscia University, PRIN Project “Territorio, ideologia, società: il continuum culturale in Iran dalla tarda età del ferro allo stato achemenide (ricerche archeologiche ed epigrafiche),” directed by Prof. Ela Filippone (2015RMKAFR_002). In the volume, Roberto Dan has addressed the study of Urartian toponyms in a complete way for the first time since 1985, the year in which Nikolay Harutjunjan published his fundamental (now of course somewhat dated) monograph on this topic. The publication of this important work, which certainly constitutes considerable progress in Urartian studies, testifies to ISMEO’s commitment to become heir and developer of the “Urar?u Project” started years ago by Mirjo Salvini that has produced fundamental contributions to the discipline. This commitment is manifested not only by scientific publications in the field, but above all by the three archaeological projects carried out in coollaboration with local scholars and institutions by R. Dan in the Southern Caucasus, Armenia (Kotayk Survey Project, Vayots Dzor Project) and Georgia (Samtskhe-Javakheti Project), that in 2018 saw the creation of a single label under which all these activities related to the same cultural area are grouped, the Archaeological Mission to South Caucasus – ISMEO (AMSC – ISMEO). This incessant field activity is reflected in the pages of this work, in the depth that can be offered by a scholar familiar not only with I parte – intro + preface LoghiLinea_Layout 1 14/07/2020 09:13 Pagina VII the archaeology, history and history of art, but also with the philology of Urar?u and Assyria. The book is divided into a series of sections whose main part is dedicated to the detailed analysis of every single toponym known in the Urartian documentation. These toponyms, considerably more numerous than in previous publications, have been subdivided on the basis of the determinative that precedes the name into categories such as rivers, mountains, countries, tribes and towns. A series of useful appendices enrich the volume, including the first systematic comparison between Urartian and Assyrian toponyms, a summary of the places that can be identified with modern locations, all the known geographical coordinates of inscriptions and the reconstruction, where possible, of the places of origin of erratic inscriptions. To conclude, this work is a welcome addition not only for those directly interested in the civilization of Urar?u, but for all scholars involved in the study of Assyria and the other actors in the complex political  scenario that characterized the 1st millennium BC in Mesopotamia and in the mountainous lands located south of the Greater Caucasus chain.


President of ISMEO


Foreword by Adriano V. Rossi

Preface by Gernot Wilhelm


Marie-Claude Trémouille, The Geography of the Kingdom of Bia/Urartu



Rivers (ÍD)

“Lands,” “Mountains” (KUR) Fragmentary and Acephalous

“Lands,” “Mountains” (KUR)

“Tribes” (M) Fragmentary

“Tribes” (M) and Cities with Royal Names


“Towns” (URU) Fragmentary

“Towns” (URU)

Theophore Toponyms (DINGIR)

Toponyms Without Determinatives


1. Chronological Table with Synchronisms between Assyrian and Urartian Kings

2. Urartian Toponyms Identified with Modern Places

3. List of Urartian Toponyms with a Certain or Possible Correspondence with Assyrian Toponyms

4. Locations of Urartian Inscriptions

5. Reconstruction of the Original Locations of Erratic Urartian Inscriptions and General List of Cited Toponyms



List of General Abbreviations

List of Bibliographical Abbreviations



“How and why to nominate a site for the 7 Most Endangered 2021” – 30 July 2020 at 17:00

Many heritage treasures all over Europe are threatened due to a series of natural, human-related or climate change causes, particularly in these trying times.

Do you happen to know an important endangered heritage gem in Armenia – such as a historic monument or an ensemble of historic monuments, an archaeological site, a place of worship, an industrial complex, a historic park, a museum or a movable heritage asset? Then nominate it for the 7 Most Endangered programme 2021!

Launched in 2013, the 7 Most Endangered programme is a civil society campaign to save Europe’s endangered heritage. It raises awarenessprepares independent assessmentsproposes recommendations for action and seeks to rally support to save the selected endangered sites. It does not guarantee direct funding but the listing of an endangered site often serves as a catalyst and incentive for mobilisation of the necessary public or private support, including funding.

The 7 Most Endangered programme is run by Europa Nostra – the European Voice of Civil Society committed to Cultural and Natural Heritage – in partnership with the European Investment Bank Institute (EIB Institute). It also has the support of the Creative Europe programme of the European Union.

In the 2021 edition, for the first time since the launch of the programme, the selected 7 Most Endangered heritage sites will be eligible for an EIB Heritage Grant of up to 10,000 euros per site. The EIB Heritage Grant can be allocated to the eligible selected 7 Most Endangered sites as an assistance for an agreed activity aimed to ensure the saving of the threatened site.

You can nominate endangered heritage with the support of ROCHEMP and of the Centro Studi e Documentazione della Cultura Armena (CSDCA) or directly by joining the Europa Nostra network, as a member or associate organisation or as a new individual member.

Let’s save Europe’s endangered heritage sites together!

The deadline for submissions is 7 September 2020 (date of sending).

A webinar “How and why to nominate a site for the 7 Most Endangered 2021” will be held on 30th July 2020 at 19:00 Armenian time

The webinar is organised by the Europa Nostra secretariat and it will be in English. It will explain the background of the 7 Most Endangered Programme providing also practical information and tips on how to prepare and submit your nominations. Participants will have some time to ask questions at the end of the event.

The webinar is directed to potential nominators of 7 Most Endangered sites or to people interested in knowing more about the programme.

Interested participants are invited to register at this link by Tuesday 28 July 2020. Instructions on how to join the webinar will be emailed to registered participants one day prior to the webinar when registrations close. 

You can read more here about the Call for Nominations.